CNARC's Organization and Evolution
The China-Nordic Research Center (CNARC) was established in Shanghai on December 10, 2013 by ten member institutes, four Chinese and six Nordic, which all have capacities to influence and coordinate Arctic research. CNARC is an international consortium initiated by the Polar Research Institute of China (PRIC) in collaboration with respective institutes in the Nordic countries and China to promote and facilitate China-Nordic cooperation for Arctic research. The CNARC Secretariat is located at PRIC in Shanghai.
CNARC’s purpose is to:
- Provide a platform for academic cooperation to increase awareness, understanding and knowledge of the Arctic and its global impact.
- Promote cooperation for the sustainable development of the Nordic Arctic and a coherent development of China in a global context.
- China-Nordic Arctic Cooperation Symposium
- CNARC Fellowship / Internship Program
- Information sharing and cultural exchange in Arctic context
- Joint Research Projects
CNARC’s Research themes:
- Arctic climate change and its impacts
- Arctic resources, shipping and economic cooperation
- Arctic policy and legal studies
CNARC builds on the tradition of Arctic cooperation by bringing knowledge to action and bridging cutting-edge scientific research with high-level policy-makers and industry leaders for empirical and fact-based decision-making. In 2017, CNARC’s constructive contributions was mentioned in the “Joint Press Release Strengthening Sino-Nordic Cooperation” between the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China and the Nordic Council of Ministers, under part three on science, research and education. In 2018, CNARC was supported as a platform for promoting international exchanges and cooperation in China’s Arctic Policy White Paper and included in the Nordic Council of Ministers Arctic Cooperation Program 2018-2021.
The annual China-Nordic Arctic Cooperation symposia, which rotates between a Chinese and Nordic hosts, has been held six times with around 100 participants at each event; including researchers, policy-makers, NGOs, indigenous peoples, industry and civil society.
|24-26 May 2013
|Sustainable Development in the Arctic: Human Activity and Environmental Change
|2-5 June 2014
|"North meets East"
Hosted at the University of Akureyri, conveners:
|26-28 May 2015
|Arctic Synergies, Policies and Best Practices
|6-9 June, 2016
|The Sustainable Arctic - Opportunities and Challenges of Globalization
Hosted at Arktikum, conveners:
|26-28 May, 2017
|Towards the Future: Trans-regional Cooperation in the Arctic: Development and Protection
|23-25 May, 2018
|Integrated Ocean Management in the Arctic
Hosted at the Fram Centre, conveners:
The concluding part of each symposium is the CNARC Roundtable, focused on Nordic-China economic and cultural cooperation in a Chatham House rule-based dialogue between business leaders, policy-makers and researchers. The CNARC Roundtable contributes to increased awareness of Arctic affairs by Chinese stakeholders and is designed to generate connections between potential Chinese and Nordic partners on Arctic issues.
Themes of the CNARC Roundtable:
- June 2013 - Shanghai, China - Establishing CNARC
- June 2014 - Reykjavik, Iceland - China-Iceland Arctic Economic Roundtable
- May 2015 - Shanghai, China - Cooperation Towards Operational Use of the Arctic Sea Routes
- June 2016 - Rovaniemi, Finland - Arctic Sustainable Tourism
- May 2017 - Dalian, China - Arctic Shipping and Port Cities
- May 2018 - Tromsø, Norway - Arctic Fisheries - from the Ocean to the Market
Fellowship / Internship Program
CNARC has sponsored 17 fellowships (with four more to be added in the 2018-2019 round) for Nordic and Chinese scholars to conduct research within the field of CNARC’s research themes at leading corresponding Nordic and Chinese research institutes and universities. The CNARC secretariat has furthermore hosted three international interns. The fellowship programme has assisted in building up contacts between Nordic and Chinese researchers through people-to-people exchange, which have strengthened research projects and partnerships of CNARC members that are carried out independently between relevant partners; as well as having the intended benefit of original research being produced on a wide set of topics in the fields of CNARC research priorities.
|Professor, University of Iceland
|Shanghai Institutes for International Studies / Polar Research Institute of China
|Arctic Geopolitics, National Interests, and Transnational Governance
|Research Fellow, Arctic Centre, University of Lapland
|China Ocean University
|China as an Observer State in the Arctic Council: Advantages and Future Challenges
|Lecturer, Tongji University
|Fridtjof Nansen Institute, Norway
|Uncertainties in the Arctic Exploitation and their impacts on China's Arctic Policy
|Research Fellow, Shanghai Institutes for International Studies
|Norwegian Polar Institute
|Key Factors of Arctic Governance and its Staged Progression
|Rasmus Gjedsso Bertelsen
|Professor, Barents Chair in Politics, UiT - The Arctic University of Norway
|Tongji University / Shanghai Institutes for International Studies / Polar Research Institute of China
|Sino-Nordic + Arctic Science Diplomacy for Building Sino-Nordic Arctic Policy Relations Under Conditions of Globalization
|Senior Research Fellow, Shanghai Institutes of International Studies
|Arctic Centre, University of Lapland
|Nordic Countries contribution to the development of Arctic law and regime & current trend of the globalized Arctic governance
|Associate Researcher, Jiao Tong University
|Stefansson Arctic Institute, Iceland
|2015 High Seas Arctic Fishery Declaration: Starting Point towards Future Management of Marine Living Resource in the Central Arctic Ocean
|Associate Professor, University of Copenhagen
|Polar Research Institute of China
|Emergency Preparedness and Knowledge Transfer Between Arctic Countries and China
|PhD Candidate, University of Turku
|China Ocean University
|Collaboration of Northeast Asian Stakeholders on the Arctic
|Assistant Professor, University of Copenhagen
|Evolving trilateral Greenland-Denmark-China relations
|Professor, Shanghai Ocean University
|Fridtjof Nansen Institute, Norway
|Non-Arctic States' contribution to the Arctic Ocean legal order-making for living resource management
|Professor, Tongji University
|Arctic Research Centre, Umea University, Sweden
|Role of Arctic Indigenous people (AIP) in the Arctic
|Assistant Professor, Dalian Maritime University
|University of Lapland, Finland
|Cooperation among No-state Actors in Dealing with the Carriage and Use of Heavy Fuel by Vessels in the Arctic
|Lecturer, Shanghai International Studies University
|Umea University, Sweden
|Swedish role in Arctic governance and the potential of Sino+ Swedish Arctic cooperation
|Research Fellow, Shanghai Institutes for International Studies
|Nordic Institute of Asian Studies, Denmark
|Science-Governance Interplay in the Polar Regions: What can Arctic Learn from Antarctica
|Assistant Professor, The University of Faroe Islands
|Shanghai Ocean University, China
|International perspectives on new Faroese Fisheries Reform; Sustainable Blue Growth
|PhD Researcher, Umea University
|Shanghai Jiaotong University
|Studies of Sami people's health & wellbeing - China collaboration
Publication and Events
CNARC has facilitated publication projects and several international seminars and exchanges. In 2016 a CNARC Special Issue under the title: “Arctic Policy and Sustainable Development” was published in Advances in Polar Science (APS) and the first CNARC book “Sino-Nordic Arctic Cooperation: Objectives and Approaches” was launched on December 10, 2018 with a target audience of Chinese researchers, policy-makers, business people and general public that have an interest in the Nordic countries and Arctic affairs and their relevance to China, filling a literature gap in Chinese on the Nordic Arctic. CNARC has facilitated information sharing and cultural exchange between Chinese and Nordic partners, including at international conferences such as the Arctic Circle and Arctic Frontiers, through Shanghai-based Arctic diplomat meetings, and by providing support for many Arctic-related seminars and exchanges in Shanghai.
CNARC Member Institutes
The Polar Research Institute of China
Polar Research Institute of China (PRIC) founded in 1989, dedicates itself to the scientific research and logistic support for the polar expedition. The main functions of PRIC are 1) to conduct research of science, technology and strategic issues in the polar regions; 2) to undertake environments monitoring and conservation in the polar regions; 3) to operate research stations, vessels and aircrafts and provide logistic supports to Arctic/Antarctic research expeditions; 4) to carry out education and outreach of polar science and promote international cooperation.
The Division of polar strategic studies within PRIC, founded in 2009, takes the responsibilities of the tracing and analysis of the polar circumstances, and the research on the strategic issues in the domains of polar politics, economy, science & technology, as well as security. It shall provide advices for the national decision-making related to the Polar Regions and build the brand of an influential think-tank with regard to the polar strategic studies.
Shanghai Institute for International Studies
Founded in 1960, Shanghai Institutes for International Studies (SIIS) is a comprehensive research organization for studies of international politics, economy, security strategy and China's external relations. The SIIS is dedicated to serving for China's modernization drive, and for Shanghai's opening-up and economic development. It mainly studies the United States, Japan, Europe, Russia and the Asia-Pacific region, focusing on relations among major powers and China's periphery environment.
In 2011, SIIS established the center of maritime and polar studies. The main research fields of the center lie in the maritime affairs and polar affairs, especially Chinese Arctic and Antarctic policies, the building of maritime power of China, the Chinese maritime development strategy, maritime safety issue and the international cooperation on maritime and polar affairs.
Tongji University, one of China’s earliest national key universities, is a prestigious institution of higher education which is directly under the Ministry of Education (MOE) and is supported by the Shanghai Municipality. After 110 years of development, Tongji University has become a comprehensive and research-intensive university with distinctive features and an international reputation.
Center for Polar and Oceanic Studies (CPOS), Tongji University, established in 2009, is the first such academic institution in China's colleges and universities with the comprehensive studies on the Arctic and Antarctic politics, law, security, society, environment, economy, and China's polar strategy and polar policy.
CPOS is to best achieve the target of accumulating polar research resources, building research team, and promoting academic exchanges and cooperation with polar research institutions at home and abroad. The center is to develop itself by way of getting support from Tongji School of Political Science and International Relations, as well as support from other Tongji schools and colleges. CPOS also targets on the interdisciplinary studies based on the combination of humanities and social sciences with engineering and sciences by taking Tongji's advantages in the oceanic and environmental sciences. CPOS is dedicated to five issue area studies: 1) Polar International Organization Studies; 2) Polar Political and Security Studies; 3) Polar Policy Studies; 4) Polar Environmental, Resources and Social Studies; and 5) Polar and Oceanic Management Institution Studies.
The Ocean University of China
Ocean University of China (OUC) is a comprehensive university with particular strengths in oceanography, fisheries science and Polar science. Particularly, Polar research is a national specialty with great characteristics and also a distinguished major in China. OUC has the biggest and earliest team in mainland China, made up of six professors focusing on polar research. We established Polar Research Institute in 2007 in OUC and has been one of the most famous think tanks in China specializing at polar affairs, which has been officially recognized by Ministry of Education of the PRC.
OUC’s polar research mainly covers two key academic disciplines involving international relations and international law (law of the sea). Our colleagues go far ahead in Chinese publication related to polar issues. We initiated China-Russia Arctic Workshop in 2012 which has been institutionalized between China and Russia academia. We are the founder of International think tank “Polar and Ocean Portal” (www.polaroceanportal.com) attracting many a outstanding Arctic scholars around the world. Due to our school's contribution, OUC became the first a university member of the Arctic University Alliance in China. Particularly, we are proud of creative work on fishery management regime for Central Arctic Ocean, which system design we proposed has been recognized by Arctic states colleagues. We hope to strengthen cooperation with colleagues from Chinese and Nordic entities commit to Polar issues.
Shanghai Ocean University
Shanghai Ocean University (SHOU), the cradle of China’s aquaculture education, was founded in 1912 as Jiangsu Provincial Fisheries College. In 2008, the university was renamed as Shanghai Ocean University. And in 2017, it became one member of the national “Double First-Class Initiative” program for its First-Class Discipline of aquaculture.
After over 100 years’ exertion, Shanghai Ocean University has now emerged as a distinctive university that features oceanography, aquaculture and food science as its core disciplines and simultaneously develops multiple-related disciplines, covering agriculture, science, engineering, economics, management, law and humanities. A series of achievements have been made by a team of talented individuals with a mission for sustainable development and utilization of aquatic biological resources and preservation of the earth’s environment and ecology and an aim to build a world-class distinctive university, promoting the industrial and regional development.
Shanghai Jiaotong University
The Center for Polar and Deep Ocean Development (PDOD), Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU), founded in June 2013, has built its strengthen on polar issues and deep seabed mining related subjects. Over the years, PDOD has established its excellence as a comprehensive academic research institute and policy advisory agency collaborating with multidisciplinary departments and research sources within and beyond SJTU, particularly in the fields related to marine sciences, marine technology, marine engineering, equipment and marine social sciences.
Specialized in international law of the sea, PDOD provides research outcomes and expertise on maritime strategy, law and policy for China ocean-related governmental agencies and marine industries. PDOD conducts commissioned projects for drafting and revising national marine laws and regulations, and makes proposals and suggestions for the safeguard of national marine rights and interests. PDOD has contributed to the improvement of national deep seabed mining law and marine related legal systems, and promotion of national maritime strategy.
PDOD has established collaborative partnerships with marine-related research institutions home and abroad, and conducted joint workshops regularly and research projects on latest issues and topics, including the Arctic climate change and its impact, Polar environmental protection, Arctic navigational rights and other legal issues. With a series of academic activities focusing on law of the sea, marine rights and strategy, resources conservation, and environmental protection, PDOD has produced great impact in the academic circle.
In August 2017, SJTU-PDOD became China's first observer of International Seabed Authority. This observer status has made PDOD possible to participate and voice its views in the law-making process for the deep seabed mining. PDOD will strives to explore possible ways for non-governmental organizations to participate in global governance.
Dalian Maritime University
Dalian Maritime University (DMU) is one of the largest and best maritime universities and is the only key maritime institution under the Ministry of Transport, People’s Republic of China. DMU enjoys a high reputation internationally as an excellent center of maritime education and training that is recognized by the International Maritime Organization (IMO).
DMU now consists of 19 teaching and research institutions. The current student population has risen to approximately 20000. Since 1979, DMU has established cooperative relations with 91 international renowned higher education institutions and organizations from 29 countries and regions, which include Russia, USA, Japan, Great Britain, etc. At the same time, Dalian Maritime University has established long-term relationship with a number of international organizations and bodies. Through continuous construction and development, the number of students, educational level, and other aspects of Dalian Maritime University has been in the forefront of similar institutions in the world.
South China Business College of Guangdong University of Foreign Studies
The Research Center for Polar Issues (RCPI) of South China Business College of Guangdong University of Foreign Studies, founded in June 2017, is one of the centers of the Ministry of Education of China for international and regional studies as well as the member of China-Nordic Arctic Research Center (CNARC), having established a cooperative relationship with the Russian Academy of Polar Sciences and other foreign polar research institutions. The Center currently has 17 full-time and part-time researchers, based on the 11 foreign languages and the disciplines of economics and management. At present, it is mainly engaged in the research of Sino-Nordic tourism economic cooperation, China-Nordic educational cooperation, China-Russia Arctic Exploiting Cooperation and other studies on polar governance and international cooperation. The Center is an important base for the study of polar issues in South China.
Arctic Centre, University of Lapland (Finland)
The Arctic Centre of the University of Lapland is built exclusively for Arctic research and outreach. Combining researchers, communicators and a science centre exhibition, it enjoys high international reputation and forms Finland's leading centre of excellence for the Arctic. The research at the Arctic Centre focuses currently in five main themes. It has research group of Global Change, Northern Institute for Environmental and Minority Law, Sustainable Development, Arctic Anthropology, and Arctic Governance. The combination of social sciences, anthropology, nature sciences and law studies makes it possible to have a holistic understanding of the developments and life in the Arctic.
Arctic Centre communicates general and science based Arctic information using various communication methods and through experimental exhibitions. Arctic Centre's expertize is also utilized in the Arctic Council and the Barents Euro-Arctic Council activities. Arctic Centre has an international staff of about 80. The Centre is located in the Arktikum house close to the Arctic Circle.
Fridtjof Nansen Institute (Norway)
The Fridtjof Nansen Institute (FNI) is an independent foundation engaged in research on international environmental, energy and resource management politics and law. The main disciplines are political science and international law, but FNI researchers also hold degrees in economics, geography, history and social anthropology, and have special language and regional competence on Russia and China. Within this framework the institute's research is mainly grouped around seven focal points:
- Global environmental governance and law
- Climate change
- Law of the Sea and marine affairs
- Biodiversity and genetic resources
- Polar and Russian politics
- European energy and environment
- Chinese energy and environment
FNI's activities include academic studies, contract research, investigations and evaluations. FNI's sources of funding include the Research Council of Norway, various Norwegian public bodies, business associations and private companies, the European Commission and international research foundations. Annual turnover is around 40 million NOK. FNI currently has a staff of around 35, including around 25 full-time researchers and 3-6 students.
Icelandic Center for Research Icelandic Centre for Research (Iceland)
The Icelandic Centre for Research (RANNIS) supports research, innovation, education and culture in Iceland. RANNIS administers competitive funds in the fields of research, innovation, education and culture, as well as strategic research programmes. RANNIS coordinates and promotes Icelandic participation in European programmes, such as Horizon 2020, Erasmus+ and Creative Europe. In Arctic science cooperation, RANNIS represents Iceland within the International Arctic Science Committee (IASC) and various other international Arctic platforms. RANNIS monitors resources and performance in R&D and promotes public awareness of research and innovation, education and culture in Iceland.
RANNIS cooperates closely with the Icelandic Science and Technology Policy Council and provides professional assistance the preparation and implementation of the national science and technology policy. RANNIS reports to the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture and operates according to the Act on Public Support for Scientific Research (No. 3/2003). RANNIS has a permanent staff of 43 but also relies on the involvement of external contacts, including scientists and technical experts who assist in the evaluation of grant proposals.
Nordic Institute of Asian Studies (located in Copenhagen)
Nordic Institute of Asian Studies (NIAS) is an academically independent Nordic research and resource center, focusing on modern Asia from a predominantly social sciences perspective. NIAS is an integrated part of the University of Copenhagen with the status of a centre under the Department of Political Science. Through the Nordic NIAS Council (NNC), in which leading Nordic universities and research institutions participate, NIAS organizes a well-functioning institutionalized cooperation that strengthens collaboration in the Nordic countries.
NIAS is more than a research institute. NIAS is also a resource centre containing a wide array of knowledge and skills, and with a broad network of contacts connecting people and institutions with expertise on Asia. Through conferences and workshops, accessible information resources, commentary on current affairs, and contact with media, government and businesses, we constantly seek to broaden knowledge of modern Asia in the Nordic region.
Norwegian Polar Institute (Norway)
The Norwegian Polar Institute (NPI) is active within fields of scientific research, mapping and environmental monitoring in the Arctic and Antarctic. The Institute advises Norwegian authorities in strategic and thematic matters relating to the Polar Regions, represents Norway internationally on various occasions and is Norway's competent environmental authority in Antarctica. NPI's key activities are monitoring of climate, environment pollutants and biodiversity and geological and topographic mapping.
The Norwegian Polar Institute is a directorate under the Ministry of Climate and Environment. The Ministry defines the scope and sets the tasks for NPI. The organization has grown rapidly in recent years as part of the Norwegian Government's strategic initiatives in the High North. NPI represents Norway in several international forums and collaborates with research institutes all over the world. NPI's results are obtained through research and environmental monitoring projects are passed to civil administration, research partners, expert groups, schools and the general public. NPI produces and distributes exhibits, books, reports and a scientific journal, Polar Research, often in collaboration with domestic and foreign partners.
Swedish Polar Research Secretariat (Sweden)
The Swedish Polar Research Secretariat is a government agency mandated to coordinate and promote Swedish polar research. Its primary mission is organizing and supporting research expeditions to the polar regions and managing research infrastructure. The Secretariat also helps to create favorable conditions for polar research that does not involve fieldwork. The Secretariat's about 30 employees are engaged in research planning, research infrastructure, communication and administration.
The Secretariat follows and supports scientists from concept to publication, through research expeditions and data collection, as well as making data available and communicating research findings. In order to advance high quality polar research and use of research findings in society, the Secretariat provides expertise and raises awareness of polar regions and polar research. Polar research plays a key role in climate change research. The Secretariat works actively to improve environmental protection in the polar regions. The Secretariat is involved in international negotiations and partnerships.
The Arctic University of Norway - UiT (Norway)
UiT The Arctic University of Norway is one of the four comprehensive universities in Norway and the northernmost university in the world. Its location on the edge of the Arctic implies a mission, in particular as the Arctic is of increasing global importance. Climate change, the exploitation of Arctic resources and environmental threats are topics of great public concern, and which UiT takes special interest in. 16500 students and 3500 staff study and work at UiT The Arctic University of Norway. Teaching is research-based. UiT´s seven faculties offer, in addition to a dedication to Northern issues, a broad range of study programmes. UiT's key research areas are the polar environment, climate research, indigenous people, peace and conflict transformation, telemedicine, medical biology, space physics, fishery science, marine biosprospecting, linguistics and computational chemistry.
The university is part of the FRAM – High North Research Centre for Climate and the Environment (Fram Centre) in Tromsø. Every January the international conference Arctic Frontiers invites researchers, politicians and business representatives to discuss Arctic issues across disciplinary borders. The Secretariat of the Arctic Council is located at the Fram Centre. Researchers from the University and the Fram Center are involved in several international programmes of the Arctic Council. UiT The Arctic University of Norway is a founding member of the University of the Arctic, an international network of 160 study and research institutions of the circumpolar region.
The University of Akureyri (Iceland)
The University of Akureyri (UNAK) was founded in 1987 and is located in the capital of North Iceland, Akureyri. The University is divided into three Schools: School of Business and Science, School of Humanities and Social Sciences and School of Health Sciences. UNAK offers PhD and masters' opportunities to postgraduate students in a wide range of subjects – and is recognized for the excellence of its faculty in the area of Arctic research and education. The Master's degree in Polar Law at the University of Akureyri is the first of its kind and unique in the world.
Akureyri is the location of various Arctic institutions and initiatives such as the International Arctic Science Committee (IASC); the Secretariats of the Arctic Council Working Groups PAME (Protection of Arctic Marine Environment) and CAFF (Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna); Stefansson Arctic Institute; the Polar Law Institute; the Northern Research Forum (NRF); and the Icelandic Arctic Cooperation Network.
Nord University (Norway)
Nord University, with 12,000 students and 1,200 employees, offers education at bachelor, master and doctoral levels. The university has nine study locations in Central and Northern Norway, with state of the art teaching and research facilities, located in a spectacular northern setting. Nord University has a focus on developing regional networks with communities, business and industry, which is strengthened by a decentralised model.
Nord University has established collaborations with international partners in the High North and around the globe. Established joint degree programmes and research projects with, among others, Russia, the Ukraine, Slovakia, South Korea, Japan and China, build on strong educational networks. Nord University is represented at CNARC by the Centre for High North Logistics (CHNL), which has the aim to build-up an international knowledge network with key businesses, research institutions and public authorities on Arctic resources, transport and logistics.
University of Umeå (ad-hoc member representing SPRS 2016-2017)
Umeå University was founded in 1965 and is Sweden's fifth oldest university. Today, we have a strong international and multicultural presence with students, teachers and researchers from all over the world. Offering around 2,000 courses and 150 study programmes, among them over 30 Master’s programmes in English. The number of students has risen steadily and is now around 31,500. Umeå University’s research spans the humanities, social sciences, educational sciences, medicine, and natural and engineering sciences.
To further strengthen our competitiveness in the north we have established an Arctic Research Centre (Arcum), a multidisciplinary research environment offering a research environment intertwined by cooperation in project management, publications, supervision, international networks, arrangements, seminars and strategic research planning. The centre assembles a strong research environment with national proficiency in extensive research areas, such as the human dimension in cultural science, health, environmental, climate, policy, and socioeconomic issues. The concept is to provide a multi-disciplinary response to present and future demands of research-based knowledge for a sustainable development in the north. We also have a Centre for Sami Research, a multi-disciplinary unit focusing on the only indigenous people of Sweden.